# 2.6. Closures

## 2.6.1. Nested Function

• Function inside the function

• nested functions can access the variables of the enclosing scope

def outer(message):

def inner():
print(message)

return inner


## 2.6.2. What is closure?

• technique by which the data is attached to some code even after end of those other original functions is called as closures

• Closures can avoid use of global variables and provides some form of data hiding

• When the interpreter detects the dependency of inner nested function on the outer function, it stores or makes sure that the variables in which inner function depends on are available even if the outer function goes away

• Method of binding data to a function without actually passing them as parameters is called closure

• It is a function object obj that remembers values in enclosing scopes even if they are not present in memory

• Closures provide some sort of data hiding as they are used as callback functions

• This helps us to reduce the use of global variables

• Useful for replacing hard-coded constants

• Closures prove to be efficient way when we have few functions in our code

def outer(message):

def inner():
print(message)

return inner

todo = outer('hello')
todo()
# hello

del outer
todo()
# hello

def f(x):
def g(y):
return x + y
return g


## 2.6.3. Examples

data = [1, 2, 3]

def outer():
print('inner', data)

outer()
# inner [1, 2, 3]

print('outer', data)
# outer [1, 2, 3]

Listing 462. Variables in functions can shadow outer scope. Outer scope is restored, when function returns
data = [1,2,3]

def outer():
data = ['a', 'b', 'c']
print('inner', data)

outer()
# inner ['a', 'b', 'c']

print('outer', data)
# outer [1, 2, 3]

Listing 463. Functions can modify outer scope
data = [1,2,3]

def outer():
global data
data = ['a', 'b', 'c']
print('inner', data)

outer()
# inner ['a', 'b', 'c']

print('outer', data)
# outer ['a', 'b', 'c']

Listing 464. inner function (closure) has access to its outer scope, that is outer function.
def outer():
data = ['a', 'b', 'c']

def inner():
print('inner', data)

inner()
print('outer', data)

outer()
# inner ['a', 'b', 'c']
# outer ['a', 'b', 'c']

def outer():
data = ['a', 'b', 'c']

def inner():
print('inner', data)

return inner

my_ptr = outer()

print(my_ptr)
# <function outer.<locals>.inner at 0x11bfb8560>

my_ptr()
# inner ['a', 'b', 'c']

def outer():
data = ['a', 'b', 'c']

def inner():
print('inner', data)

return inner

my_ptr = outer()

print(my_ptr)
# <function outer.<locals>.inner at 0x10617c8b0>

del outer

print(my_ptr)
# <function outer.<locals>.inner at 0x10617c940>

my_ptr()
# inner ['a', 'b', 'c']