3. Distributing Packages

3.1. Instalacja i korzystanie z zewnętrznych bibliotek

3.1.2. pip install

3.1.3. pip install -r requirements.txt

3.1.4. requirements.txt a setup.py

3.2. Importowanie modułów

import module
from module import submodule
from module.submodule import function as alias
from . import module
from .. import module

from .module import submodule
from ..module import submodule

3.3. Modularyzacja

3.3.1. Plik __init__.py

from backend.api_v2.models.click import Click
from backend.api_v2.models.event import Event
from backend.api_v2.models.survey import Survey
from backend.api_v2.models.trial import Trial

__all__ = ['Click', 'Event', 'Survey', 'Trial']

3.3.2. Linia if __name__ == '__main__'

3.3.3. Importowanie względne from . import *

3.3.4. __all__

3.3.5. Konwencja nazewnicza - __main__.py

  • Python has been able to execute zip files which contain a __main__.py file since version 2.6

  • In order to be executed by Python, an application archive simply has to be a standard zip file containing a __main__.py file which will be run as the entry point for the application


Check zipapp for more information

3.4. Tworzenie paczek

3.4.1. distutils i setuptools

3.4.2. wheel vs. egg

3.4.3. setup.py

from setuptools import find_packages
from setuptools import setup
from os import path

assert sys.version_info >= (3, 6), "Python 3.6+ required."

BASE_DIR = os.path.dirname(os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(__file__)))

# Get the long description from the relevant file
with open(path.join(BASE_DIR, 'README.rst'), encoding='utf-8') as file:
    long_description = file.read()

# Get the project requirements from requirements.txt file
with open(path.join(BASE_DIR, 'requirements.txt'), encoding='utf-8') as file:
    requirements = file.read().splitlines()


    # Versions should comply with PEP440.  For a discussion on single-sourcing
    # the version across setup.py and the project code, see
    # https://packaging.python.org/en/latest/single_source_version.html

    description='Analog Habitat Operating System',

    # The project's main homepage.

    # Author details
    author='Matt Harasymczuk',
    author_email='[email protected]',

    # Choose your license

    # See https://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=list_classifiers
        # How mature is this project? Common values are
        #   3 - Alpha
        #   4 - Beta
        #   5 - Production/Stable
        'Development Status :: 4 - Beta',

        # Indicate who your project is intended for
        'Intended Audience :: Science/Research',
        'Topic :: Scientific/Engineering',
        'Topic :: System :: Operating System',

        # Pick your license as you wish (should match "license" above)
        'License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License',

        # Specify the Python versions you support here. In particular, ensure
        # that you indicate whether you support Python 2, Python 3 or both.
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.6',

    # What does your project relate to?
    keywords='space exploration analog analogue habitat operating system',

    # You can just specify the packages manually here if your project is
    # simple. Or you can use find_packages().
    packages=find_packages(exclude=['contrib', 'docs', 'tests*']),

    # List run-time dependencies here.  These will be installed by pip when
    # your project is installed. For an analysis of "install_requires" vs pip's
    # requirements files see:
    # https://packaging.python.org/en/latest/requirements.html

    # List additional groups of dependencies here (e.g. development
    # dependencies). You can install these using the following syntax,
    # for example:
    # $ pip install -e .[dev,test]
        'dev': ['check-manifest'],
        'test': ['coverage', 'pep8'],

    # If there are data files included in your packages that need to be
    # installed, specify them here.  If using Python 2.6 or less, then these
    # have to be included in MANIFEST.in as well.
        # 'sample': ['package_data.dat'],

    # Although 'package_data' is the preferred approach, in some case you may
    # need to place data files outside of your packages. See:
    # http://docs.python.org/3.4/distutils/setupscript.html#installing-additional-files # noqa
    # In this case, 'data_file' will be installed into '<sys.prefix>/my_data'
    # data_files=[('my_data', ['data/data_file.txt'])],

    # To provide executable scripts, use entry points in preference to the
    # "scripts" keyword. Entry points provide cross-platform support and allow
    # pip to create the appropriate form of executable for the target platform.
        'console_scripts': [

3.4.4. setup.cfg

universal = 1

license_file = LICENSE

max-line-length = 999
exclude = */migrations/*
ignore = E402,W391

3.4.5. python setup.py sdist upload

3.4.6. Signing packages