9. Standards

9.1. W3C HTML5 Standard regexp for email field

/^[a-zA-Z0-9.!#$%&’*+/=?^_`{|}~-][email protected][a-zA-Z0-9-]+(?:\.[a-zA-Z0-9-]+)*$/

9.2. W3C standard for URL understanding

^(?=[^&])(?:(?<scheme>[^:/?#]+):)?(?://(?<authority>[^/?#]*))?(?<path>[^?#]*)(?:\?(?<query>[^#]*))?(?:#(?<fragment>.*))?

9.3. W3C standard for URL parsing

/^\s*[a-z](?:[-a-z0-9\+\.])*:(?:\/\/(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:])*@)?(?:\[(?:(?:(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){6}(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3})|::(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){5}(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3})|(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4})?::(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){4}(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3})|(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4})?::(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){3}(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3})|(?:(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){0,2}[0-9a-f]{1,4})?::(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){2}(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3})|(?:(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){0,3}[0-9a-f]{1,4})?::[0-9a-f]{1,4}:(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3})|(?:(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){0,4}[0-9a-f]{1,4})?::(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3})|(?:(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){0,5}[0-9a-f]{1,4})?::[0-9a-f]{1,4}|(?:(?:[0-9a-f]{1,4}:){0,6}[0-9a-f]{1,4})?::)|v[0-9a-f]+[-a-z0-9\._~!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:]+)\]|(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(?:\.(?:[0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])){3}|(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;[email protected]])*)(?::[0-9]*)?(?:\/(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@]))*)*|\/(?:(?:(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@]))+)(?:\/(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@]))*)*)?|(?:(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@]))+)(?:\/(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@]))*)*|(?!(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@])))(?:\?(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@])|[\uE000-\uF8FF\uF0000-\uFFFFD|\u100000-\u10FFFD\/\?])*)?(?:\#(?:(?:%[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]|[-a-z0-9\._~\uA0-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF\u10000-\u1FFFD\u20000-\u2FFFD\u30000-\u3FFFD\u40000-\u4FFFD\u50000-\u5FFFD\u60000-\u6FFFD\u70000-\u7FFFD\u80000-\u8FFFD\u90000-\u9FFFD\uA0000-\uAFFFD\uB0000-\uBFFFD\uC0000-\uCFFFD\uD0000-\uDFFFD\uE1000-\uEFFFD!\$&\'\(\)\*\+,;=:@])|[\/\?])*)?\s*$/i

9.4. Parsing URLs

To parse a URL url into its component parts, the user agent must use the following steps:

  1. Strip leading and trailing space characters from url.

  2. Parse url in the manner defined by RFC 3986, with the following exceptions:

    • Add all characters with code points less than or equal to U+0020 or greater than or equal to U+007F to the <unreserved> production.

    • Add the characters U+0022, U+003C, U+003E, U+005B ... U+005E, U+0060, and U+007B ... U+007D to the <unreserved> production

    • Add a single U+0025 PERCENT SIGN character as a second alternative way of matching the <pct-encoded> production, except when the <pct-encoded> is used in the <reg-name> production.

    • Add the U+0023 NUMBER SIGN character to the characters allowed in the <fragment> production.

  3. If url doesn't match the <URI-reference> production, even after the above changes are made to the ABNF definitions, then parsing the URL fails with an error. [RFC 3986] Otherwise, parsing url was successful; the components of the URL are substrings of url defined as follows:

<scheme>

The substring matched by the <scheme> production, if any.

<host>

The substring matched by the <host> production, if any.

<port>

The substring matched by the <port> production, if any.

<hostport>

If there is a <scheme> component and a <port> component and the port given by the <port> component is different than the default port defined for the protocol given by the <scheme> component, then <hostport> is the substring that starts with the substring matched by the <host> production and ends with the substring matched by the <port> production, and includes the colon in between the two. Otherwise, it is the same as the <host> component.

<path>

The substring matched by one of the following productions, if one of them was matched:

<path-abempty>
<path-absolute>
<path-noscheme>
<path-rootless>
<path-empty>
<query>

The substring matched by the <query> production, if any.

<fragment>

The substring matched by the <fragment> production, if any.

<host-specific>

The substring that follows the substring matched by the <authority> production, or the whole string if the <authority> production wasn't matched.