11. Concurrency

  • Promises and Futures
  • yield from
  • asyncio
  • async/await
  • Twisted, Tornado
  • Curio, Trio

11.1. High-Level Concurrency

  • CPU-bound Concurrency:

    • Using Queues and Multiprocessing
    • Using Futures and Multiprocessing
  • I/O-bound Concurrency:

    • Using Queues and Threading
    • Using Futures and Threading

11.2. Coroutine

The word “coroutine”, like the word “generator”, is used for two different (though related) concepts:

  • The function that defines a coroutine (a function definition using async def or decorated with @asyncio.coroutine). If disambiguation is needed we will call this a coroutine function (iscoroutinefunction() returns True).
  • The object obtained by calling a coroutine function. This object represents a computation or an I/O operation (usually a combination) that will complete eventually. If disambiguation is needed we will call it a coroutine object (iscoroutine() returns True).

11.3. Asyncio

11.3.1. Protocol

  • __await__
  • __aiter__, __anext__
  • __aenter__, __aexit__
class Reader:
    async def readline(self):

    def __aiter__(self):
        return self

    async def __anext__(self):
        val = await self.readline()
        if val == b'':
            raise StopAsyncIteration
        return val
class AsyncContextManager:
    async def __aenter__(self):
        await log('entering context')

    async def __aexit__(self, exc_type, exc, tb):
        await log('exiting context')

11.3.2. Low-level API

  • callbacks
  • Transport and Protocols
  • network, subprocesses, signals

11.3.3. async/await

  • run coroutines
  • streams, sockets, subprocesses, locks, timeouts, cancelations

11.3.4. Mainstream

  • in standard library since Python 3.5
  • stable and supported
  • healthy ecosystem
  • HTTP: aiohttp, Sanic
  • DBs: asyncpg, aio-libs, aiomysql

11.3.5. Pluggable event loop

  • uvloop - makes asyncio 2-4x faster
  • PyO3
loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()


11.4. Przykłady praktyczne

11.4.1. Hello World coroutine

import asyncio

async def hello_world():
    print("Hello World!")

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
# Blocking call which returns when the hello_world() coroutine is done

11.4.2. Coroutine displaying the current date

import asyncio
import datetime

async def display_date(loop):
    end_time = loop.time() + 5.0
    while True:
        if (loop.time() + 1.0) >= end_time:
        await asyncio.sleep(1)

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
# Blocking call which returns when the display_date() coroutine is done

11.4.3. Chain coroutines

import asyncio

async def compute(x, y):
    print("Compute %s + %s ..." % (x, y))
    await asyncio.sleep(1.0)
    return x + y

async def print_sum(x, y):
    result = await compute(x, y)
    print("%s + %s = %s" % (x, y, result))

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
loop.run_until_complete(print_sum(1, 2))

11.4.4. Future with run_until_complete()

import asyncio

async def slow_operation(future):
    await asyncio.sleep(1)
    future.set_result('Future is done!')

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
future = asyncio.Future()

11.4.5. Parallel execution of tasks

import asyncio

async def factorial(name, number):
    f = 1
    for i in range(2, number+1):
        print("Task %s: Compute factorial(%s)..." % (name, i))
        await asyncio.sleep(1)
        f *= i
    print("Task %s: factorial(%s) = %s" % (name, number, f))

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
    factorial("A", 2),
    factorial("B", 3),
    factorial("C", 4),